পাইথন রোডম্যাপ অথবা লেসন {Python Road Map or Lesson}

আমরা অনেকেই পাইথন প্রোগ্রামিং শিখতে চাই কিন্তু সঠিক ইনফর্মেশন না পাওয়ার জন্য আমরা শিখতে পারি না বা সঠিক ইনফর্মেশন পেলেও কোথার থেকে সুরু কোরবো এবং কোথায় শেষ কোরবো তা অজানা থাকায় পাইথন প্রোগ্রামিং শেখাটা একটু কষ্টকর হয়ে ওঠে। 

এই সমস্যা সমাধান করার জন্য এবং পাইথন প্রোগ্রামিং ভালো করে শেখার জন্য আমরা পাইথনের রোড ম্যাপ {Road Map} নিয়ে এসেছি  এই রোড ম্যাপ ধরে শিখলে আপনি বেসিক লেভেল থেকে শুরু করে  অ্যাডভ্যান্স লেভেল পর্যন্ত শিখতে পারবেন। নিচে পাইথনের রোড ম্যাপ অথবা লেসন সম্পর্কে বিস্তারিত দেওয়া হল। 

{tocify} $title={Table of Contents}

পাইথন রোডম্যাপ অথবা লেসন {Python Road Map or Lesson}

Chapter 1 Introduction To Python

  • What is Python
  • Features of python
  • Execution of a python program
  • Viewing the Byte Code
  • Flavors of python
  • python virtual machine (pvm)
  • Frozen Binaries
  • Memory management in python
  • Garbage collection in python
  • comparisons between c and python
  • comparisons between java and python

Chapter 2 writing Our First python program

  • Installing Python for windows
  • Testing the installation in windows 10
  • Verifying the path to python
  • installing numpy
  • installing pandas
  • installing xlrd
  • installing matplotlib
  • Verifying Installed packages 
  • writing our first python program
  • executing a python program
  • using python's command line windows
  • using python's IDLE graphics windows
  • running Directly from System prompt
  • getting help in python
  • getting python documentation help

Chapter 3 Data types in Python

  • Comments in Python 
  • Single line comments
  • Multi line comments 
  • Docstrings 
  • How Python Sees Variables  
  • Data types in Python
  • Built-in datatypes
  • The None Type
  • Numeric Types
  • Representing Binary, Octal and Hexadecimal Numbers
  • Converting the Data types Explicitly
  • bool Data type 
  • Sequences in Python
  • str Data type 
  • bytes Data type 
  • bytearray Datatype 
  • list Datatype 
  • tuple Datatype 
  • range Datatype
  • Sets 
  • set Datatype 
  • frozenset Datatype
  • Mapping Types 
  • Literals in Python 
  • Numeric Literals
  • Boolean Literals
  • String Literals 
  • Determining the Datatype of a Variable 
  • What about Characters 
  • User-defined Datatypes 
  • Constants in Python
  • Identifiers and Reserved words
  • Naming Conventions in Python 

Chapter 4 Operators in python

  • operator
  • Arithmetic Operator
  • Using Python Interpreter as Calculator
  • Assignment Operators
  • Unary Minus Operator 
  • Relational Operators
  • Logical Operators 
  • Boolean Operators 
  • Bitwise Operators 
  • Bitwise Complement Operator ( ~ ).
  • Bitwise AND Operator (&) 
  • Bitwise OR Operator ( | ) 
  • Bitwise XOR Operator ( ^ ) 
  • Bitwise Left Shift Operator(<<)
  • Bitwise Right Shift Operator (>>).
  • Membership Operators 
  • The in Operator 
  • The not in Operator 
  • Identity Operators 
  • The is Operator 
  • The is not Operator 
  • Operator Precedence and Associativity 
  • Mathematical Functions 
  • Using IDLE Window 
  • Using Command Line Window
  • Executing at System Prompt 

Chapter 5: Input and Output

  • Output statements
  • The print() Statement 
  • The print("string") Statement 
  • The print(variables list) Statement 
  • The print(object) Statement
  • The print("string", variables list) Statement 
  • The print(formatted string) Statement 
  • Input Statements
  • Command Line Arguments 
  • Parsing Command Line Arguments 

Chapter 6: Control Statements 

  • Control Statements
  • The if Statement 
  • A Word on Indentation 
  • The if  else Statement 
  • The if  elif  else Statement 
  • The while Loop 
  • The for Loop
  • Infinite Loops 
  • Nested Loops 
  • The else Suite 
  • The break Statement 
  • The continue Statement. 
  • The pass Statement 
  • The assert Statement 
  • The return Statement 

Chapter 7: Arrays in Python 

  • Array 
  • Advantages of Arrays 
  • Creating an Array 
  • Importing the Array Module 
  • Indexing and Slicing on Arrays.
  • Processing the Arrays 
  • Types of Arrays 
  • Working with Arrays using numpy 
  • Creating Arrays using array()
  • Creating Arrays using linspace 
  • Creating Arrays using logspace 
  • Creating Arrays using arange() Function 
  • Creating Arrays using zeros() and ones() Functions.
  • Mathematical Operations on Arrays
  • Comparing Arrays
  • Aliasing the Arrays 
  • Viewing and Copying Arrays 
  • Slicing and Indexing in numpyArrays 
  • Dimensions of Arrays 
  • Attributes of an Array
  • The ndim Attribute 
  • The shape Attribute 
  • The itemsizeAttribute.
  • The size Attribute 
  • The dtype Attribute 
  • The nbytes Attribute 
  • The reshape() Method 
  • The flatten() Method 
  • Working with Multi-dimensional Arrays
  • The array() Function 
  • The ones() and zeros() Functions
  • The eye() Function 
  • The reshape() Function 
  • Indexing in Multi-dimensional Arrays 
  • Slicing the Multi-dimensional Arrays 
  • Matrices in numpy 
  • Getting Diagonal Elements of a Matrix
  • Finding Maximum and Minimum Elements 
  • Finding Sum and Average of Elements Products of Elements 
  • Sorting the Matrix 
  • Transpose of a Matrix 
  • Matrix Addition and Multiplication 
  • Random Numbers 

Chapter 8: Strings and Characters

  • Creating Strings 
  • Length of a String
  • Indexing in Strings Slicing the Strings 
  • Repeating the Strings
  • Concatenation of Strings 
  • Checking Membership
  • Comparing Strings 
  • Removing Spaces from a String 
  • Finding Sub Strings 
  • Counting Substrings in a String 
  • Strings are Immutable 
  • Replacing a String with another String
  • Splitting and Joining Strings 
  • Changing Case of a String.
  • Checking Starting and Ending of a String
  • String Testing Methods 
  • Formatting the Strings 
  • Working with Characters 
  • Sorting Strings 
  • Searching in the Strings
  • Finding Number of Characters and Words 
  • Inserting Sub String into a String 

Chapter 9: Functions 

  • Difference between a Function and a Method 
  • Defining a Function 
  • Calling a Function 
  • Returning Results from a Function 
  • Returning Multiple Values from a Function
  • Functions are First Class Objects 
  • Pass by ObjectReference 
  • Formal and Actual Arguments 
  • Positional Arguments 
  • Keyword Arguments 
  • Default Arguments 
  • Variable Length Arguments 
  • Local and Global Variables 
  • The Global Keyword 
  • Passing a Group of Elements to a Function
  • Recursive Functions 
  • Anonymous Functions or Lambdas 
  • Using Lambdas with filter() Function 
  • Using Lambdas with map() Function 
  • Using Lambdas with reduce() Function
  • Function Decorators 
  • Generators 
  • Structured Programming 
  • Creating our Own Modules in Python 
  • The Special Variable __name 

Chapter 10: Lists and Tuples

  • List 
  • Creating Lists using range() Function .
  • Updating the Elements of a List 
  • Concatenation of Two Lists 
  • Repetition of Lists 
  • Membership in Lists 
  • Aliasing and Cloning Lists 
  • Methods to Process Lists
  • Finding Biggest and Smallest Elements in a List 
  • Sorting the List Elements 
  • Number of Occurrences of an Element in the List
  • Finding Common Elements in Two Lists 
  • Storing Different Types of Data in a List 
  • Nested Lists 
  • Nested Lists as Matrices 
  • List Comprehensions
  • Tuples 
  • Creating Tuples 
  • Accessing the Tuple Elements 
  • Basic Operations on Tuples 
  • Functions to Process Tuples 
  • Nested Tuples 
  • Inserting Elements in a Tuple 
  • Modifying Elements of a Tuple 
  • Deleting Elements from a Tuple 

Chapter 11: Dictionaries

  • Operations on Dictionaries 
  • Dictionary Methods 
  • Using for Loop with Dictionaries 
  • Sorting the Elements of a Dictionary using Lambdas 
  • Converting Lists into Dictionary 
  • Converting Strings into Dictionary 
  • Passing Dictionaries to Functions
  • Ordered Dictionaries 

Chapter 12: Introduction to Oops

  • Problems in Procedure Oriented Approach 
  • Specialty of Python Language 
  • Features of Object Oriented Programming System (OOPS) 
  • Classes and Objects 
  • Encapsulation 
  • Abstraction
  • Inheritance 
  • Polymorphism 

Chapter 13: Classes and Objects

  • Creating a Class 
  • The Self Variable 
  • Constructor
  • Types of Variables 
  • Namespaces
  • Types of Methods 
  • Instance Methods 
  • Class Methods 
  • Static Methods 
  • Passing Members of One Class to AnotherClass.
  • Inner Classes 

Chapter 14: Inheritance and Polymorphism

  • Constructors in Inheritance 
  • Overriding Super Class Constructors and Methods.
  • The super() Method 
  • Types of Inheritance 
  • Single Inheritance 
  • Multiple Inheritance 
  • Method Resolution Order (MRO).
  • Polymorphism 
  • Duck Typing Philosophy of Python 
  • Operator Overloading 
  • Method Overloading 
  • Method Overriding 

Chapter 15: Abstract Classes and Interfaces 

  • Abstract Method and Abstract Class 
  • Interfaces in Python 
  • Abstract Classes vs. Interfaces 

Chapter 16: Exceptions

  • Errors in a Python Program 
  • Compile-Time Errors 
  • Runtime Errors 
  • Logical Errors 
  • Exceptions 
  • Exception Handling 
  • Types of Exceptions 
  • The Except Block 
  • The assert Statement 
  • User-Defined Exceptions 
  • Logging the Exceptions 

Chapter 17: Files in Python

  • Files 
  • Types of Files in Python 
  • Opening a File
  • Closing a File 
  • Working with Text Files Containing Strings 
  • Knowing Whether a File Exists or Not 
  • Working with Binary Files.
  • The with Statement 
  • Pickle in Python 
  • The seek() and tell() Methods 
  • Random Accessing of Binary Files 
  • Random Accessing of Binary Files using mmap 
  • Zipping and Unzipping Files 
  • Working with Directories 
  • Running Other Programs from Python Program 

Chapter 18: Regular Expressions in Python

  • Regular Expressions 
  • Sequence Characters in Regular Expressions 
  • Quantifiers in Regular Expressions.
  • Special Characters in Regular Expressions 
  • Using Regular Expressions on Files 
  • Retrieving Information from a HTML File 

Chapter 19: Data Structures in Python 

  •  Linked Lists
  • Stacks. 
  • Queues
  • Deques

Chapter 20: Date and Time

  • The epoch 
  • Date and Time Now 
  • Combining Date and Time 
  • Formatting Dates and Times 
  • Finding Durations using 'timedelta' 
  • Comparing Two Dates 
  • Sorting Dates 
  • Stopping Execution Temporarily 
  • Knowing the Time taken by a Program 
  • Working with Calendar Module

Chapter 21: Threads

  • Single Tasking.
  • Multitasking.
  • Differences between a Process and a Thread. 
  • Concurrent Programming and GIL 
  • Uses of Threads 
  • Creating Threads in Python 
  • Creating a Thread without using a Class
  • Creating  a Thread by  Creating a sub class to  Thread class
  • Creating a  Thread  without creating Sub Class to Thread Class
  • Thread class Methods
  • Single Tasking using a Thread 
  • Multitasking using Multiple Threads 
  • Thread Synchronization.
  • Locks 
  • Semaphore 
  • Deadlock of Threads
  • Avoiding Deadlocks in a Program 
  • Communication between Threads 
  • Thread Communication using nofity() and wait() Methods 
  • Thread Communication using a Queue 
  • Daemon Threads 

Chapter 22: Graphical User Interface

  • GUI in Python 
  • The Root Window 
  • Fonts and Colors
  • Working with Containers
  • Canvas 
  • Frame 
  • Widgets 
  • Button Widget 
  • Arranging Widgets in the Frame 
  • Label Widget 
  • Message Widget 
  • Text Widget 
  • Scrollbar Widget 
  • Checkbutton Widget 
  • Radiobutton Widget 
  • Entry Widget 
  • Spinbox Widget 
  • Listbox Widget 
  • Menu Widget 
  • Creating Tables

Chapter 23: Networking in Python

  • Protocol 
  • TCP / IP Protocol
  • User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
  • Sockets
  • Knowing IP Address 
  • URL
  • Reading the Source Code of a Web Page 
  • Downloading a Web Page from Internet 
  • Downloading an Image from Internet 
  • A TCP/IP Server 
  • A TCP/IP Client 
  • A UDP Server 
  • A UDP Client
  • File Server 
  • File Client 
  • Two-Way Communication between Server and Client
  • Sending a Simple Mail 

Chapter 24: Python's Database Connectivity

  • DBMS
  • Advantages of a DBMS over Files
  • Types of Databases Used with Python 
  • Installation of MySQL Database Software 
  • Verifying MySQL in the Windows Operating System
  • Installing MySQLdb Module 
  • Verifying the MySQLdb Interface Installation 
  • Working with MySQL Database ..
  • Using MySQL from Python 
  • Retrieving All Rows from a Table 
  • Inserting Rows into a Table.
  • Deleting Rows from a Table 
  • Updating Rows in a Table 
  • Creating Database Tables through Python 
  • Installation of Oracle 11g.
  • Verifying Oracle Installation in Windows Operating System 
  • Installing Oracle Database Driver 
  • Verifying the Driver Installation 
  • Working with Oracle Database.
  • Using Oracle Database from Python 
  • Stored Procedures

Chapter25: Data Science Using Python

  • DataFrame
  • Creating Data Frame from an Excel Spreadsheet 
  • Creating Data Frame from .csv Files 
  • Creating Data Frame from a Python Dictionary 
  • Creating Data from Python List of Tuples 
  • Operations on Data Frames ... Data Visualization 
  • Bar Graph 
  • Histogram 
  • Creating a Pie Chart 
  • Creating Line Graph 
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